The Viking sword was the main type of sword used in North Western Europe during the Viking Age. Although called “Viking sword”, this style of sword was not exclusively limited to Vikings and was used by other peoples.It was a development of the Roman spatha, evolving out of the Migration Period sword in the 8th century, and into the classical knightly sword in the 11th century with the emergence of larger cross-guards.
Blade length varied from 28 to 33 inches. Early example have single, deep, wide fullers running the full length of the blade. Later examples have multiple narrow fullers. A fuller reduces the weight of the blade without compromising the strength. This weight reduction would allow the wielder to swing faster and harder strokes.
All have short single-handed hilts with pyramid, lobed or cocked-hat style pommels. Pommels were made of iron and were heavier than on the earlier Migration Period sword. They started to act as a counterweight to the blade.
While the pattern of hilt and blade design of this time might readily be called “the Viking sword” to do so would be to disregard the widespread popularity swords of this sort enjoyed. All over continental Europe between 700-1000 AD this design and its small variations could be found. Only the wealthier Viking goðar, jarls, and sometimes selected freemen wielded swords, while ordinary freeman tended to carry axes, spears or/and slings.